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BIOAVAILABLE FORMS OF VITAMIN D3 AND K2
Humans are genetically designed to produce sufficient levels of vitamin D3 via the conversion of cholesterol in a reaction that requires exposure of our skin to the sunlight. Overtime, our eating patterns have changed and our sun exposure has dwindled (most wear sunscreen or are indoors much of the time). As a result, our Vitamin D levels and our health have declined . Without supplementation, it's nearly impossible to get adequate vitamin d levels.
In a literature review in the journal Epidemiology and Infection, Dr. Cannell wrote on the importance of vitamin D3 for immune system function and relationship between vitamin D3 deficiency in winter months and influenza (flu) outbreaks. It has been found that vitamin D3 dramatically reduces the incidence of colds and flu.
WHAT IS D3 K2?
D3 K2 by Celarity features the most bioavailable and bioactive form of supplemental vitamin K2 available and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). This is the identical form in which vitamin D is derived in the body from cholesterol and synthesized by sunlight on the skin. Studies have confirmed the safety and efficacy for bone and heart health.
- Supports cardiovascular health by affecting arterial calcium deposits
- Supports healthy blood clotting
- Supports healthy immune system function
- Supports bone health by promoting carboxylation of bone proteins
Naturally occurring vitamin K is found as either K1 (phylloquinone), which is derived from food sources such green leafy vegetables, or K2 (menaquinones). Menaquinones are designated as MK-n, where n denotes the length of the molecule’s aliphatic side chain. Menaquinones are synthesized by bacteria and can be obtained from animal-based and fermented foods. Structural differences between K1 and K2 impact their bioavailability and bioactivity. Furthermore, among menaquinones, menaquinone-7 (MK-7), with its longer side chain, is very hydrophobic. Compared to K1, MK-7’s physiochemical properties make it highly transportable by plasma lipoproteins, increase its extrahepatic (bones, arteries, etc.) availability, and produce its long half-life.[1-3]
Absorption of K1 from food can be limited due to its membrane-bound nature and the individual consumer’s digestive and absorptive variability. Moreover, adequate consumption of foods high in K2 can be challenging. Therefore, dietary supplementation is an important option. In addition, research suggests that higher levels of menaquinones are needed than were previously thought. Supplementary vitamin K can be found in three forms: synthetic K1; MK-4, which is structurally similar to K1; and natural, long-chain MK-7. Celarity's D3 K2 supplement provides MK-7 as Vitamk7TM, a naturally derived and solvent-free vitamin K2 that has been obtained through a patent-granted biofermentation process of Bacillus subtilis natto cultures.
Among the dietary factors critical to bone health, vitamin K has emerged as a key player. Vitamin K is believed to be necessary for bone mineralization. Through carboxylation, vitamin K activates osteocalcin, the protein needed to bind calcium to the mineral matrix in bone. Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of MK-7 (e.g., doses of 45-90 mcg/d) to increase osteocalcin carboxylation and to increase the cOC:ucOC ratio. A high cOC:ucOC ratio is associated with bone health.[1,2,4] A recent in vitro study also showed an osteogenic effect of MK-7 administration on human mesenchymal cell differentiation. In addition, the vitamin may protect bone integrity by reducing the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 or interleukin-6 by osteoclasts. Animal and human studies have demonstrated a significant beneficial effect of MK-7 supplementation on bone health.[8-10] Vitamin K and vitamin D share some similar characteristics and are believed to act synergistically.
CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER HEALTH BENEFITS
Vitamin K benefits cardiovascular health by participating in the carboxylation of matrix GLA protein (MGP), a protein regarded to be the most potent inhibitor of arterial calcification. Researchers have demonstrated that supplementation with vitamin K reduces arterial calcium deposits[1,3,12] and that long-term intake of long-chain menaquinones is inversely correlated with calcium accumulation in arteries.
Vitamin K has specific receptor binding sites that allow it to regulate gene activity. Besides its gene-mediating effects upon critical proteins, the vitamin can also bind with the steroid and xenobiotic receptors and influence their expression. In addition, vitamin K also demonstrates antioxidant activity; reduces levels of certain markers, such as acute phase reactants (e.g., C-reactive protein); and participates in the induction of apoptosis.
VITAMIN D (as D3)
Although vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is made in the skin when 7-dehydrocholesterol reacts with sunlight, many things affect the degree to which this biosynthesis occurs, including time of day, seasons, location, smog/ pollution, clothing, shade of skin (darker skin requires more sun), and sunscreen use. Low-cholesterol diets and certain cholesterol therapies can also affect vitamin D formation. By some estimates, one billion people worldwide have vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. The body needs vitamin D to absorb calcium, and the importance of vitamin D in skeletal health and bone density is well-established. Without adequate absorption, the body must take calcium from its stores in the skeleton, which weakens existing bone and prevents the formation of strong, new bone. Researchers suggest that vitamin D supplementation may decrease bone turnover and increase bone mineral density. A pooled analysis evaluating 11 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials supported this analysis. It concluded that vitamin D supplementation (> 800 IU daily) was favorable in maintaining hip and nonvertebral bone integrity in individuals aged 65 and older.
Although D2 and D3 are similar biochemically, one study demonstrated D3 to be approximately 87% more potent in raising and maintaining serum calcidiol (the body’s storage form) concentrations and in producing two- to threefold greater storage of vitamin D than did equimolar D2.
Count: 60 vegetarian capsules
Suggested use: Take one capsule daily, preferably at mealtime, or as directed by your healthcare practitioner.
Caution: Consult your healthcare practitioner prior to use. Individuals taking medication should discuss potential interactions with their healthcare practitioner. Consider total vitamin K intake (food + supplements) if you are taking blood-thinning medication. Do not use if tamper seal is damaged.
Does not contain: Wheat, gluten, yeast, soy, animal or dairy products, fish, shellfish, peanuts, tree nuts, egg, ingredients derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs), artificial colors, or artificial sweeteners
1. Brugè F, Bacchetti T, Principi F, et al. Olive oil supplemented with menaquinone-7 significantly affects osteocalcin carboxylation. Br J Nutr. 2011 Oct;106(7):1058-62. [PMID: 21736837]
2. Schurgers LJ, Teunissen KJ, Hamulyák K, et al. Vitamin K-containing dietary supplements: comparison of synthetic vitamin K1 and natto-derived menaquinone-7. Blood. 2007 Apr 15;109(8):3279-83. [PMID: 17158229]
3. Beulens JW, Bots ML, Atsma F, et al. High dietary menaquinone intake is associated with reduced coronary calcification. Atherosclerosis. 2009 Apr;203(2):489-93. [PMID: 18722618]
4. Sato T, Schurgers LJ, Uenishi K. Comparison of menaquinone-4 and menaquinone-7 bioavailability in healthy women. Nutr J. 2012 Nov 12;11:93. [PMID: 23140417]
5. Schurgers LJ, Vermeer C. Differential lipoprotein transport pathways of K-vitamins in healthy subjects. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Feb 15;1570(1):27- 32. [PMID: 11960685]
6. Gigante A, Brugè F, Cecconi S, et al. Vitamin MK-7 enhances vitamin D3- induced osteogenesis in hMSCs: modulation of key effectors in mineralization and vascularization. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2012 Oct 29. [PMID: 23109511]
7. Weber P. Management of osteoporosis: is there a role for vitamin K? Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1997;67(5):350-56. [PMID: 9350477]
8. Yamaguchi M, Taguchi H, Gao YH, et al. Effect of vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7) in fermented soybean (natto) on bone loss in ovariectomized rats. J Bone Miner Metab. 1999;17(1):23-29. [PMID: 10084398]
9. Knapen MH, Drummen NE, Smit E, et al. Three-year low-dose menaquinone-7 supplementation helps decrease bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2013 Sep;24(9):2499-507. [PMID: 23525894]
10. Kanellakis S, Moschonis G, Tenta R, et al. Changes in parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention period using dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D, and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K (2)): the Postmenopausal Health Study II. Calcif Tissue Int. 2012 Apr;90(4):251-62. [PMID: 2239252]
11. Bolton-Smith C, McMurdo ME, Paterson CR, et al. Two-year randomized controlled trial of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and vitamin D3 plus calcium on the bone health of older women. J Bone Miner Res. 2007 Apr;22(4):509-19. [PMID: 17243866]
12. Geleijnse JM, Vermeer C, Grobbee DE, et al. Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study. J Nutr. 2004 Nov;134(11):3100-05. [PMID: 15514282]
13. Igarashi M, Yogiashi Y, Mihara M, et al. Vitamin K induces osteoblast differentiation through pregnane X receptor-mediated transcriptional control of the Msx2 gene. Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Nov;27(22):7947-54. [PMID: 17875939]
14. Azuma K, Inoue S. Vitamin K function mediated by activation of steroid and xenobiotic receptor [in Japanese]. Clin Calcium. 2009 Dec;19(12):1770-8. [PMID: 19949268]
15. Vervoort LM, Ronden JE, Thijssen HH. The potent antioxidant activity of the vitamin K cycle in microsomal lipid peroxidation. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Oct 15;54(8):871-76. [PMID: 9354587]
16. Shea MK, Booth SL, Massaro JM, et al. Vitamin K and vitamin D status: associations with inflammatory markers in the Framingham Offspring Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2008 Feb 1;167(3):313-20. [PMID: 18006902]
17. Sada E, Abe Y, Ohba R, et al. Vitamin K2 modulates differentiation and apoptosis of both myeloid and erythroid lineages. Eur J Haematol. 2010 Dec;85(6):538- 48. [PMID: 20887388]
Disclaimer: These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.